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Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0312)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: The two ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase(UCH) enzymes, UCHL1 and UCHL3, deubiquitinate ubiquitin-protein conjugates and control the cellular balance of ubiquitin. UCHL1 and UCHL3 are both small proteins of ~220 amino acids that share more than 40% amino acid sequence identity.
UCHL3 is universally expressed in all tissues, while UCHL1 is expressed exclusively in neuronal tissue, testis and ovary. The activity of UCHL3 is more than 200 fold higher than UCHL1 when a fluorogenic ubiquitin substrate is used. UCHL1 associates with monoubiquitin and UCHL3 binds to Nedd8, ubiquitin-like protein. UCHL1 and UCHL3 play a role in the regulation of neuronal development and spermatogenesis. UCHL1 is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease(PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Down-regulation and extensive oxidative modification of UCHL1 have been observed in the brains of AD patients as well as PD patients.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Anti-ACTB Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody

Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0293)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: The Smad family of proteins are functioning in the transmission of extracellular signals in the TGF-β signaling pathway. Binding of a TGF-β superfamily ligands to extracellular receptors triggers phosphorylation of Smad2 at a Serine-Serine-Methionine-Serine (SSMS) motif at its C-terminus. Phosphorylated Smad2 is then able to form a complex with Smad4. These complexes accumulate in the cell nucleus, where they are directly participating in the regulation of gene expression.
In mammals, eight Smad proteins have been identified to date. The Smad family of proteins can be divided into three functional groups: the receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads), common mediator Smads (Co-Smads), and the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads). The R-Smads are directly phosphorylated by the activated type I receptors on their C-terminal Ser-Ser-X-Ser (SSXS) motif and include Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8. Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated in response to TGF-β and activin, whereas Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated in response to BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein). This C-terminal phosphorylation allows R-Smad binding to Co-Smad, Smad4, and translocation to the nucleus where they regulate TGF-β target genes. Smad6 and Smad7 belong to the I-Smad which bind to the type I receptor or Smad4 and block their interaction with R-Smads.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0204)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Kininogens are precursors for kinin, and the two main types of them are high-molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and low-molecular weight kininogen (LMWK). HMWK also known as the Williams-Fitzgerald-Flaujeac factor is a protein from the blood coagulation system as well as the kinin-kallikrein system. It acts mainly as a cofactor on coagulation and inflammation, and has no intrinsic catalytic activity. LMWK is produced locally by numerous tissues, and secreted together with tissue kallikrein.
Kininogens are synthesized in the liver and circulate in the plasma and other body fluids.
The kinins are pharmacologically active polypeptides released in the tissues and body fluids as a result of the enzymatic action of kallikreins on kininogens. The kinin family includes bradykinin (BK) (Arg-Pro-Pro-gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg), kallidin (Lys-Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg) and methionyl-lysyl-BK (Met-Lys-Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Arg). Kallidin and methionyl-lysyl-BK are converted into BK by aminopeptidases present in plasma and urine. Active tissue kallikrein acts on LMWK to release kallidin. The plasma kallikrein is found in circulation in an inactive form, which is known as prekallikrein or Fletcher factor.
BK and kallidin act through activation of G-protein-coupled constitutive B(2) or inducible kinin B(1) receptors linked to signaling pathways involving increased intracellular Ca concentrations and/or release of mediators including arachidonic acid metabolites, NO and EDHF (Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor). In the cardiovascular system, the kallikrein-kinin system exerts a fine control of vascular smooth muscle tone and arterial blood pressure, and plays a significant cardioprotective effect.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0370)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Dual specificity phosphatase 13(Also known as BEDP; MDSP; TMDP; SKRP4; DUSP13A; DUSP13B) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DUSP13 gene.[1]
Members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase superfamily cooperate with protein kinases to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. This superfamily is separated into two families based on the substrate that is dephosphorylated. One family, the dual specificity phosphatases (DSPs) acts on both phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/threonine residues. This gene encodes different but related DSP proteins through the use of non-overlapping open reading frames, alternate splicing, and presumed different transcription promoters. Expression of the distinct proteins from this gene has been found to be tissue specific and the proteins may be involved in postnatal development of specific tissues. A protein encoded by the upstream ORF was found in skeletal muscle, whereas the encoded protein from the downstream ORF was found only in testis. In mouse, a similar pattern of expression was found. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants were described, but the full-length sequence of only some were determined.[1]
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0187)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: The complement system is a part of the larger immune system and three biochemical pathways are present: the classical complement pathway, the alternative pathway, and the mannose-binding lectin pathway.
Complement component C4 is an essential component of humoral immune response. In its activated form, C4b becomes a subunit of the C3 convertase, which is an enzymatic complex that activates C3 of the classical and lectin complement activation pathways. The classical pathway is initiated by the activation of the C1-complex (C1q, C1r and C1s) by C1q's binding to antibody-antigen. The C1-complex now binds to and splits C2 and C4 producing C2a and C4b. C4b and C2a bind to form C3-convertase. Production of C3-convertase leads to cleavage of C3 into C3a and C3b and C3b joins with the C3 convertase to make C5 convertase.
Human C4 is the most polymorphic protein of the complement system. Complement C4 exists as two isotypes, C4A (acidic) and C4B (basic). Although the sequence identity is very high, they have different hemolytic activities, covalent affinities to antigens and immune complexes, and serological reactivities. Each C4 contains β chain, α chain, C4a anaphyltoxin, C4b, and γ chain.
C4-deficient mice shows incomplete clearance of microbial attack and C4-deficiency in human shows increased autoimmune diseases.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0353)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Anti-mRNA capping enzyme Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [clone: T16-AF3F1]
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-PA0085)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play a central role in maintaining basic cellular functions such as growth and metabolism through insulin/insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling. Four members (IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, IRS-4) of this family have been identified which differ in their subcellular distribution and interaction with SH2 domain proteins. After phosphorylation by activated receptors, these intracellular signaling molecules recruit various downstream effector pathways including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, tyrosine protein phosphatase SHPTP-2, and several smaller adapter molecules such as the growth factor receptor-binding protein Grb-2.
IRS-1, the best characterized IRS protein, has eighteen potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites which directly bind to SH2 domains in downstrem proteins. IRS-1 consists of amino terminal containing pleckstrin homology (PH) domain followed by a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain which binds to IR and IGFR, and carboxy terminal containing multiple tyrosine and serine residues which become docking sites for proteins that have PTB domain such as SH2 domain.
IRS-4 is the last identified member of the IRS family. Cloning of human IRS-4 revealed a predicted protein of similar length to both IRS-1 and IRS-2and showed only 27% and 29% identity with IRS-1 and IRS-2, respectively. In contrast, IRS-4 exhibits higher degree of homology in the PH domain (43 to 50 %) and the PTB domain (43 to 66%) with the corresponding domains in IRS-1, IRS-2 and IRS-3.
IRSs are also thought to be able to induce malignant transformation. IRS-1 has been shown to be constitutively active in breast cancer.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0116)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. Its mRNA and protein are expressed in kidney, testes, and ovary. And Its activity is detected almost exclusively in brain extracts.
Similar to other Cdks, monomeric Cdk5 displays no enzymatic activity, but Cdk5 is not activated by cyclins. Instead, Cdk5 activity requires association with one of two brain-specific regulatory subunits called p35 and p39. The two activators regulate the spatial and temporal expression of active Cdk5 to restrict its activity primarily to post-mitotic neurons.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0288)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: The RIP(receptor-interacting protein) family of serine/Threonine kinases(RIP-1,2,3,4,5,6,7) are crucial regulators of cell survival and cell death that can trigger pro-survival, inflammatory and immune responses via the activation of transcription factors(NF-kB and AP-1) and death-inducing programs.
RIP2(also known as RICK, CARDIAK, CCK and Ripk2) transduces signals from receptors of both immune responses. RIP2 carries a CARD at its C-terminal, which is essential for NF-kB activation. RIP2 is a critical downstream mediator of Nod1 and Nod2 signaling. Overexpression of RIP2 results in the activation of, in addition to NF-kB, the MAPKs JNK and ERK2, requiring its kinase activity to activate ERK2, but not JNK.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-PA0168)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Cyclins play a key role in the orderly progression of the cell division cycle through their timed expression and their ability to bind, activate and enhance substrate affinity of their associated cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDKs). E-type cyclins (cyclin E1 and cyclin E2) are expressed during the late G1 phase of the cell cycle until the end of the S-phase. Cyclin E binds and activates the kinase Cdk2 and by phosphorylating its substrates, the cyclic/Cdk2 complexes initiate a cascade of events that leads to the expression of S-phase specific genes. Besides this specific function as a regulator of S-phase-entry, cyclin E plays a direct role in the initiation of DNA replication, the control of genomic stability, and the centrosome cycle.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-PA0041)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, survival and migration. The PDGF family of growth factors consists of five different disulphide-linked dimers built up of four different polypeptide chains encoded by four different genes. Theses isoforms, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC and PDGF-DD, act via two receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGF receptors α and β. Thus far, gene-targeting experiments have been attempted to create knockout mice deficient for PDGFR-α or PDGFR-β. Those mice, however, died either at the embryonic stage or several days after birth. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β, have five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Upon binding a PDGF, the receptors form homo- and heterodimers. Dimerization of the receptors juxtaposes the intracellular part of the receptors, which allow phosphorylation in trans between the two receptors in the complex. These autophosphorylation provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules. More than 10 different SH2–domain-containing molecules have been shown to bind to different autophosphorylation sites in the PDGF α- and β-receptors. There are signal transduction molecules with enzymatic activity, such as PI3-kinase, PLC-γ, Src, SHP-2, GAP, as well as adaptor molecules such as Grb2, Shc, Nck, Grb7 and Crk, and Stats. Each of the different partners recruited by the activated receptor initiates different signaling pathways, making possible a great variety of cellular response.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-PA0040)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) have been implicated in the control of cell proliferation, survival and migration. The PDGF family of growth factors consists of five different disulphide-linked dimers built up of four different polypeptide chains encoded by four different genes. Theses isoforms, PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, PDGF-CC and PDGF-DD, act via two receptor tyrosine kinases, PDGF receptors α and β. Thus far, gene-targeting experiments have been attempted to create knockout mice deficient for PDGFR-α or PDGFR-β. Those mice, however, died either at the embryonic stage or several days after birth. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β, have five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Upon binding a PDGF, the receptors form homo- and heterodimers. Dimerization of the receptors juxtaposes the intracellular part of the receptors, which allow phosphorylation in trans between the two receptors in the complex. These autophosphorylation provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules. More than 10 different SH2–domain-containing molecules have been shown to bind to different autophosphorylation sites in the PDGF α- and β-receptors. There are signal transduction molecules with enzymatic activity, such as PI3-kinase, PLC-γ, Src, SHP-2, GAP, as well as adaptor molecules such as Grb2, Shc, Nck, Grb7 and Crk, and Stats. Each of the different partners recruited by the activated receptor initiates different signaling pathways, making possible a great variety of cellular response.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0106)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in mammalian plasma and is generally considered to be a multifunctional transport protein. HSA is a signle-chain protein synthesized in and secreted from liver cells. HSA has significant antioxidant activity and may represent the major and predominant circulating antioxidant in plasma, which is known to be exposed to continuous oxidative stress. HSA protects human low density lipoproteins against copper-mediated oxidation and blood against hemolysis by free radicals. HSA which are exposed to glucose and have a relatively slow turnover rate are particularly susceptible to nonenzymatic glycosylation. Structural changes in glycosylated albumin lead to a reduction in affinity for fatty acid.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0281)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: α-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein of 590 amino acids containing 3.4% carbohydrate content with a molecular weight of 61,000 – 75,000 Da. AFP is normally produced in the developing embryo and fetus by the fetal yolk sac, the fetal gastrointestinal tract, and eventually by the fetal liver. In humans, AFP levels decrease gradually after birth, reaching adult levels by 8 to 12 months. Normal adult AFP levels are low and AFP has no known function in normal adults.
The biologic role of AFP has not been defined yet. Because of its biochemical similarity to albumin, it has been postulated that AFP could be a carrier protein. It may have an immunoregulatory function during pregnancy.
Increased serum levels are found in some tumors, such as hepatocellular
carcinoma (HCC), hepatoblastoma, and germ cell tumors. Although total AFP is a useful serological marker for diagnosis of HCC, the false-negative or positive rate with AFP level is very high. AFP-L3, an isoform of AFP which binds Lens culinaris agglutinin, can be particularly useful in early identification of aggressive tumors associated with HCC. AFP mRNA, the circulating genetic markers, also has been used in monitoring distal metastasis or postoperative recurrence of HCC.
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


Artikel-Nr: (ABFRLF-MA0043)
Lieferant: AbFrontier
Beschreibung: Peroxiredoxin (Prx) is a growing peroxidase family, whose mammalian members have been known to connect with cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
Many isoforms (about 50 proteins), collected in accordance to the amino acid sequence homology, particularly amino-terminal region containing active site cysteine residue, and the thiol-specific antioxidant activity, distribute throughout all the kingdoms. Among them, mammalian Prx consists of 6 different members grouped into typical 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys Prx, and 1-Cys Prx. Except Prx VI belonging to 1-Cys Prx subgroup, the other five 2-Cys Prx isotypes have the thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase (TPx) activity utilizing thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NADPH as a reducing system. Mammalian Prxs are 20 – 30 kilodalton in molecular size and vary in subcellular localization: Prx I, II, and VI in cytosol, Prx III in mitochondria, Prx IV in ER and secretion, Prx V showing complicated distribution including peroxisome, mitochondria and cytosol (1).
UOM: 1 * 0,1 mL


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